Okie Lantui tolong skit... harap anda dapt information dari sini...HISTORICAL FACTS ABOUT BASKETBALL.
- Invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, an instructor at the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts.
- Specifically created to stimulate winter attendance at the YMCA.
- The game got its name from the two half-bushel peach baskets that were attached to the gymnasium balcony.
- The peach baskets were attched 10 feet above the floor and established a measurement that remains in use today.
- The original game began with 13 basic rules that are the foundation of the modern game.
- Women's basketball competition began in 1892.
- A player from the first women's team later married Dr. Naismith.
- A metal ring with a netted bag was used in place of the basket in 1893.
- The ball had to be released by pulling on a metal chain after each goal.
- Nets without bottoms were not intrduced until 1913.
- Backboards were first used in 1894 to keep spectators from reaching out to deflect the ball.
- The game was originally played with 9 players on a team. ( Dr. Naismith had 18 students in his class ).
- Five players on a team has been standard since 1895.
- The first college game was in 1896 between Chicago and Iowa.
- The first professional game was in 1898.
- The National Basketball Association ( NBA ) was formed in June of 1946.
- In November of 1946, the NBA's first game was played at Maple Leaf Gardens with the New York Knickerbockers beating the Toronto Huskies, 68-66.
- The Woman's National Basketball Association ( WNBA ) was formed in 1997. BASKETBALL EQUIPMENT BALL
The official ball is spherical ( round ) with a circumference of 29.5 to 30 inches for men and 25.5 to 29 inches for women. The men's ball weighs 20 to 22 ounces and the women's ball weighs 18 to 20 ounces. Leather balls are used in competition, but balls are also made of rubber or synthetic materials. BASKET
The basket consists of a simple metal ring that is 18 inches in inside diameter and is secured to a backboard made of rectangular or fanshaped glass, wood, or fiberglass. A white cord net is suspended beneath the ring from 12 hooks. BASKETBALL BACKBOARD BASKETBALL POSITIONS
- Five team players usually include a center, two gaurds, and two forwards.
- The center (post, pivot) is usually the tallest player. He or she often takes the jump balls and is respomsible for rebounding and close-range shooting.
- Gaurds are usually the best ball handlers. They advance up the court by dribbling and passing. The point gaurd sets up a team's offensive pattern like a quarterback.
- Forwards are respnsible for shooting and rebounding missed shots.
- Extra players on the bench can substitute for the players on the court. BASIC RULES OF BASKETBALL
Although there are rule variations between men and women;s basketball and between the various levels of play, there are basic rules that govern play at any level.
- Only five players play on each team at one time.
- Any number of substitutions may be made during any dead ball.
- Substitutions must wait by the scorer's table until called into the game by an official.
- Any player must request a timeout.
- Two points are scored for a goal from the court other than from the three-point area.
- Each successful free throw awarded for fouls scores one point.
- If a player puts the ball into the basket of the opponent, a goal is scored for the opponent.
- A total of five 1-minute timeouts may be taken and may be requested any time by the team in possession of the ball or by either team during a dead ball.
- If the score is tied at the end of regulation, play continues for as many extra periods needed to break the tie.
- The clock is stopped when an official indicates a dead ball.
- The clock continus to run after successful field goals.
- The ball is put into play at the beginning of the game by a jump ball in the center circle by two opposing players.
- After each goal, the ball is put into play by the team that did not score the goal from behind the endline at the end of the court where the basket was scored.
- Quarters and the half start with the team entitled to possession given the ball at the center division line.
- A player is out-of-bounds when touching the floor on or outside of the boundary lines.
- The ball is out-of-bounds when it touches a person or thing that is on or outside the boundary or the supports or back of the backboard.
- A team is awarded throw-in at the place where the opposing team caused the ball to go out-of-bounds.
- An offensive player may not remain in the free-throw lane for more than 3 seconds during play.
- If two opponents are both holding the ball, or if an offensive ballhandler traps a defensive player for more than 5 seconds, the ball is awarded out-of-bounds to the team who did not last have the ball out-of-bounds.
- Violations include:
- Sending the ball out-of-bounds
- Double dribbling
- Running with the ball
- Kicking the ball
- Striking the ball with the fist
- Interfering with the basket (goaltending)
- Stepping on the line during a throw-in
- Taking more than 5 seconds for a throw-in
- Staying in the free-throw lane for more than 3 seconds
- Keeping the ball in backcourt for more than 10 seconds BASKETBALL FOULS
Personal fouls are violations involving contact with an opponent.
- A player is disqualified and removed from play after 5 personal fouls (6 in the NBA).
- Some personal fouls include:
- Holding, pushing, tripping, or charging
- Contact with a shooting player
- A player fouled while shooting is awarded 2 free throws if the shot misses.
- If the fouled offensive player is not shooting, the team gets possession out-of-bounds nearest where the foul occurred.
- The defensive tem gets possession of the ball when the offensive team commits the foul..
- An intentional foul results in 2 free throws.
- A flagrant foul (violent contact that may cause injury) is awarded 2 fre throws and the offender is ejected from the game.
- A technical foul is a non contact foul by a player or a violation by a nonplayer or an intentional or flagrant foul during a dead ball.
- Technical fouls include:
- Delay of game
- Having too many players on the court
- Grabbing the basket
- Excessive timeouts
- Goaltending free-throws
- Disrespectful behavior to officials
- Using profanity or obscene gestures
- Leaving the bench
Coach leaving the box to follow the play
- Coach entering the court without permission
- Technical fouls are awarded 2 free throws, plus possession of the ball at the division line. LENGTH OF BASKETBALL GAMES
The length of basketball games varies according to the level of play.
-International Basketball Federation (FIBA, Federation Internationale De Basketball Amateurs): two 20-minute halves, 10 minutes between halves.
- National Basketball Association (NBA): four 12-minute quarters, 15 minutes between halves, 130 seconds between quarters.
- National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA): two 20 minute halves, 15 minutes between halves.
- High School: four 8 minute quarters, 10 minute between halves, 1 minute between quarters.
- Youth play: four 6 minute quarters, 10 minutes between halves, 1 minute between quarters. BASKETBALL TERMS
When a player positions him- or herself nder the backboard in such a way that it prevents the opposition from achieving a good rebounding position.
Personal contact against a defensive player by a player in possession of the ball.
Quick offensive maneuver by a player in order to get in position to receive a pass.
Two opposing players commit fouls against each other at the same time.
Continuously bouncing the ball onto the floor without touching the ball with both hands at the same time, allowing the ball to stop its continuous movement, or losing control.
Aggressive move towards the basket by an offensive player in possession of the ball.
Use of a deceptive move to pull the opposing player out of position.
Moving quickly into offensive position before the defensive team has an opportunity to set up.
A penalty shot awarded to a player when the opposition has committed a foul. Shot is taken from within the free-throw circle and behind the free-throw line.
Method of putting the ball into play that involves tossing the ball up into the air between two opposing players in the center circle.
Direct pass from a rebound that starts a fastbreak.
An offensive player gets in position that causes a defensive player to be blocked from covering the offensive player's teammate.
Cutting to the 3-second lane and hesitating in anticipation of the pass.
Term used for the action of the ball as it bounces off the backboard or rim.
Three 6-foot radius circles located in the center of the court and at both of the free-throw lines.
Offensive player gets in a position between a defender and a teammate in order to give the teammate an uncontested shot at the basket.
Putting the ball into play from out-of bounds.
Player in possesion of the ball moves illegally in any direction.
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